October 20th, 1864: Calvin Hanna’s Furlough

The following post is part of an ongoing series entitled Civil War Voices from Florida. Each day in October 2014, Florida Memory will post a document from the collections of the State Archives of Florida written exactly 150 years before that date, in October 1864.

If you missed our posts from October 18th and October 19th, they are now available online.

Today’s edition of Civil War Voices comes from Calvin Hanna, a private from Gadsden County, Florida. He and his brother Hamilton enlisted in Company B, 8th Florida Infantry on May 10, 1862 at Quincy. Hamilton died during the Battle of Second Bull Run on August 31, 1862, but his brother Calvin remained in the unit until sometime in 1864, when he was transferred to Howard’s Grove Hospital at Richmond.

Having learned of her son’s poor health, Calvin’s mother penned an impassioned plea to the authorities to permit him to come home:

“Sargent in charge of the hospital that Calvin Hanna is in [...] if he is yet alive and able to come home, I ask of you, if you have any regard for a mother’s feeling which you are not destitute of, I pray you give him a discharge or a furlough, as I wish to see him once more in life and restore him to health as I think I can do so…”

Mrs. Hanna’s wish was granted. On October 20th, Calvin Hanna received this furlough pass:

Calvin Hanna's Furlough - Front

Calvin Hanna’s Furlough – Front (Hanna Family Papers [M87-37], State Archives of Florida)

Calvin Hanna's furlough - back

Calvin Hanna’s furlough – back (Hanna Family Papers [M87-37], State Archives of Florida)

Transcript:

SOLDIER’S FURLOUGH

Howard’s Grove HOSPITAL, Richmond VA   Oct 20th 1864.

Private C Hanna, Company “B” 8th Fla Regiment, Perry’s Brigade, being unfit for military duty in accordance with Par. II, G.O. No. 25, A. & I. Genl’s Office, 1864, is furloughed for 35 thirty five days, to go to Quincy, Gasden Co., Fla.

[Signed] James [illegible]

[At the expiration of this furlough he will report to his Regiment, or, if unable to do so, to the nearest General Hospital or the nearest Enrolling Officer.]

On the reverse:

Rations [illegible] for 10 days. 25.00 [...]

Paid 4 mo wages to include 31 of [acct? Aug?] 1864   $63.13  [signed] WS Kemper, A. Gen [Adjutant General]

# 11177 Nov 19/64 – Transport furnished in kind from Quincy to Albany.

[signed] N. F.[?] GonzalezCapt. [?]

 

And Mrs. Hanna was right about her ability to restore her son Calvin to health. Private Hanna returned to his unit in December 1864 and remained with the 8th Florida Infantry until the end of the war. He was paroled at Tallahassee on May 17, 1865.

Check out the related resources below for more information on Florida in the Civil War, and don’t forget to join us tomorrow for another edition of Civil War Voices. We’ll check in on Wilbur Wightman Gramling at the prisoner of war camp in Elmira, New York.

Related Resources on Florida Memory:

Related Resources at the State Archives of Florida:

Related Resources in Print:

 

October 19th 1864: Wilbur Wightman Gramling Diary Entry

The following post is part of an ongoing series entitled Civil War Voices from Florida. Each day in October 2014, Florida Memory will post a document from the collections of the State Archives of Florida written exactly 150 years before that date, in October 1864.

Today we’re back in Elmira, New York to hear once more from Wilbur Wightman Gramling, a Confederate prisoner of war from Tallahassee:

Excerpt from a transcript of the diary of Wilbur Wightman Gramling (Collection M88-70, State Archives of Florida).

Excerpt from a transcript of the diary of Wilbur Wightman Gramling (Collection M88-70, State Archives of Florida).

Transcript:

Wednesday, Oct. 19, 1864. No change in the weather and no news of any kind. The general health of the prisoners is a great deal better. Instead of 15 to 20 it is only 5 to 10 per day and it seems to be the general impression that we will winter here.

Gramling’s entry highlights the seriousness of the mortality rate in the Union prison at Elmira. According to one estimate, of the more than 12,000 Confederate inmates who passed through Elmira during the war, almost 25% died. Gramling held out hope that he and his comrades would be moved or exchanged before the harshest cold weather set in, but so far he had been disappointed.

We’ll hear more from Gramling later this week. For now, check out the related resources below for more information on Florida in the Civil War. Also, come back tomorrow for another edition of Civil War Voices. We’ll examine a furlough ticket from Gadsden County native Calvin Hanna.

Related Resources on Florida Memory:

Related Resources at the State Archives of Florida:

Related Resources in Print:

October 18, 1864: William Stebbins Diary Entry

The following post is part of an ongoing series entitled Civil War Voices from Florida. Each day in October 2014, Florida Memory will post a document from the collections of the State Archives of Florida written exactly 150 years before that date, in October 1864.

Today we return to the Dry Tortugas and Fort Jefferson, occupied by William Stebbins and the 110th New York Volunteers. Stebbins shares a bit more about his daily routine as a soldier:

Excerpt from William Stebbins Diary (Lewis G. Schmidt Research Files - M91-10, State Archives of Florida).

Excerpt from William Stebbins Diary (Lewis G. Schmidt Research Files – M91-10, State Archives of Florida).

Transcript:

18th

I feel better today but I thought I would rest today. It rained hard all night & has rained some this forenoon. I have been washing some & mending my clothes & fixing in our things for my convenience. I have just wrote a letter for one of my fellow soldiers. I have great reason to rejoice when I reflect my advantages have been such that I have secured an education sufficient to do the ordinary business of life & correspondence with my friends in my absence. Davies lies on his hammoc [sic] fast asleep while I am writing. A soldier becomes much habituated to [noise] & confusion that he can fall asleep almost any where.

 

For more information about Florida in the Civil War, check out the resources below. Also, come back tomorrow for another edition of Civil War Voices. We’ll have another diary entry from Wilbur Wightman Gramling.

Related Resources on Florida Memory:

Related Resources at the State Archives of Florida:

Related Resources in Print:

October 16, 1864: Robert Watson Diary Entry

The following post is part of an ongoing series entitled Civil War Voices from Florida. Each day in October 2014, Florida Memory will post a document from the collections of the State Archives of Florida written exactly 150 years before that date, in October 1864.

Today we return to the Confederate ship Savannah to check in on Key Wester Robert Watson. It looks like the chill he spoke of earlier in the month has taken a turn for the worse:

Excerpt from a transcript of the diary of Robert Watson (Collection M76-139, State Archives of Florida).

Excerpt from a transcript of the diary of Robert Watson (Collection M76-139, State Archives of Florida).

The term “holystoning” refers to the use of a chunk of soft sandstone to scrub the deck of a ship. A couple of possible origins exist for the “holy” part of the word. Some say that since it seems to have originated with the British Navy, it could be a reference to the ruined churches on the Isle of Wight where British naval crews often acquired the stones. Others say it’s a reference to the fact that holystoning often required a sailor to remain on his knees for long periods of time, as though in prayer.

As for Robert Watson, he was intent on demonstrating that scraping, cleaning, and holystoning were not enough to bring him down, even with a possible serious illness in the works. We’ll be hearing from him again later in the month. Until then, check out the related resources below, and don’t forget to join us tomorrow for another edition of Civil War Voices. We’ll be back in the Executive Office in Tallahassee to hear from Governor John Milton.

Related Resources on Florida Memory:

Related Resources at the State Archives of Florida:

Related Resources in Print:

Chautauqua in Florida

What do you do if it’s 1902 and you’re dying to know something about this Panama Canal everyone keeps talking about? Or maybe you want to hear some good music, something better than that small-town band you’ve heard a hundred times this year already. Maybe you’ve been wondering what it’s like on the other side of the Earth, or how electricity works, or the latest theories about those atom thingies.

Your options in 1902 would be limited. Most of our present-day methods for satisfying the desire for information and entertainment simply didn’t exist at that time. There was, however, an institution that aimed to bring the world to the public in the form of a traveling show. They called it “Chautauqua.”

Program sheet for the first annual session of the Florida Chautauqua at DeFuniak Springs (1885).

Program sheet for the first annual session of the Florida Chautauqua at DeFuniak Springs (1885).

Chautauqua was a nationwide adult education movement popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was named for the small town in western New York where the concept originated. Orators, musicians, actors, and other performers traveled around the country in circuits, putting on shows in large cities and small towns alike. They stayed from a few days to a few weeks depending on the gate receipts and the enthusiasm of the crowd.

The shows usually featured a combination of singing, orchestral music, lectures and “elocution,” comedy, and inspirational speeches. Sometimes the speakers would illustrate their talks with lantern slides, creating the closest experience to world travel many Chautauqua attendees would ever have. Local arrangement committees usually contracted with a Chautauqua management company to schedule the show, which would then be heavily advertised through newspapers and handbills.

A handbill describing the program for a chautauqua event at DeFuniak Springs (1885).

A handbill describing the program for a Chautauqua event at DeFuniak Springs (1885).

Traveling Chautauquas were generally held in large tents set up on the outskirts of town, but the institution became so popular in some Florida communities that local citizens raised funds to build permanent auditoriums for holding the events. Lakeland, Arcadia, Mt. Dora, and DeFuniak Springs are a few examples. As Chautauqua grew and the annual timing of the shows became more regular, families would come from miles around to camp and attend. Often a member of the traveling company would be in charge of devising activities for the children. Sometimes the children produced a show of their own to present to the adult audience toward the end of the Chautauqua series.

A chautauqua hall at Mount Dora, surrounded by the tents of families attending the show (circa 1886).

A Chautauqua hall at Mount Dora, surrounded by the tents of families attending the show (circa 1886).

Lakeland citizens gather around their new chautauqua auditorium. The building opened on November 6, 1912 with a capacity of about 1,700 (photo circa 1912).

Lakeland citizens gather around their new Chautauqua auditorium. The building opened on November 6, 1912 with a capacity of about 1,700 (photo circa 1912).

In a world without the Internet, television, or even radio, this sort of cultural experience was nothing short of thrilling for many participants. Particularly good orators sometimes gained the same sort of fame enjoyed by today’s movie and television stars. Even speeches themselves could gain immense popularity. Temple University founder Russell Conwell was well-known for an inspirational speech entitled “Acres of Diamonds.” He reputedly gave the speech over 6,100 times, mostly on the Chautauqua circuit.

A chautauqua chorus - Mt. Dora (1889).

A Chautauqua chorus – Mt. Dora (1889).

We still have lectures and live performances, of course, but we certainly don’t depend on them as our forebears once did. Most folks aren’t even familiar with the word “Chautauqua,” let alone its history as a way of connecting people with the world. One slight exception is the Florida Chautauqua in DeFuniak Springs, which still hosts periodic cultural events throughout the year.

Speaking of connections, Florida Memory is proud to be your gateway to the history and culture of the Sunshine State. What’s something you’ve learned on Florida Memory that you never knew before? Tell us about it by leaving a comment below or on Facebook!

 

 

Zora Neale Hurston

Portrait of Zora Neale Hurston.

Portrait of Zora Neale Hurston.

Today we are highlighting Zora Neale Hurston and her contributions to the Federal Writers’ Project in Florida. Make sure to check out Hurston’s audio recordings below and the new Zora Neale Hurston podcast.

Zora Neale Hurston was an African-American novelist and accomplished anthropologist whose rich literary work has inspired generations of readers. By 1938, she had already published Jonah’s Gourd Vine, Mules and Men and Their Eyes Were Watching God. Despite her reputation as a writer, there exists another side to Hurston’s career. In 1938 and 1939, during the Great Depression, Hurston worked as a folklorist and contributor to the Florida division of the Federal Writers’ Project (FWP), part of the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Through her work with the FWP, Hurston captured stories, songs, traditions and histories from African-Americans in small communities across Florida, whose stories often failed to make it into the histories of that time period.

The Works Progress Administration – after 1939, the Works Projects Administration – was a work-relief program created in 1935 by the Franklin Roosevelt administration. It had employed over 8.5 million people by its demise in 1943. One of its programs was the (FWP), which included a folklore section. The staff conducted fieldwork and recorded songs, traditions, and stories across the nation.

Gabriel Brown playing guitar as Rochelle French and Zora Neale Hurston listen - Eatonville, Florida.

Gabriel Brown playing guitar as Rochelle French and Zora Neale Hurston listen – Eatonville, Florida.

In 1939, Hurston went to a turpentine camp near Cross City in Dixie County, Florida, to find candidates for recording interviews, songs and life histories of interesting everyday people. Hurston’s essay, “Turpentine,” traced her travels through the pine forests with an African-American “woods rider” named John McFarlin. Her work on Florida’s turpentine camps is still considered authoritative. Back in Jacksonville, Hurston’s final major contribution to the Florida FWP was to arrange a recording session at the Clara White Mission. The African-American participants told stories and sang or chanted traditional music. Hurston also sang 18 songs herself, mostly work songs and folk songs.

“Dat Old Black Gal” is a railroad spiking song that Hurston learned near Miami from Max Ford, the singing liner on the construction crew. Workers would hammer the spikes securing the rails to their cross-ties in rhythm with the song.

Dat Old Black Gal

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Next is a juke song that Hurston learned on the East coast of Florida. She sings “Halimuhfack,” then describes her process for learning songs.

Halimuhfack

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Hurston sings “Let the Deal Go Down,” a gambling song she collected at the Bostwick turpentine still near Palatka, Florida. The men sang the song while playing the card game called George Skin, “the most favorite gambling game among the workers of the South.”

Let the Deal Go Down

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“Let’s Shake It,” is a track-lining chant that Hurston learned at a railroad camp in Callahan, Florida.

Let’s Shake It

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The track-lining rhythm, “Mule on the Mountain,” was the most widely-distributed work song in the United States. Zora Neale Hurston originally learned the song from George Thomas in Eatonville, Florida.

Mule on the Mountain

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The railroad lining rhythm, “Shove It Over,” which was generally distributed throughout Florida. Hurston learned the song from Charlie Jones on a railroad construction camp near Lakeland, Florida, in 1933.

Shove It Over

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“Wake Up Jacob,” was sung to wake up the workers in a big work camp. Hurston learned it at a sawmill in Polk County.

Wake Up Jacob

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For more information about Zora Neale Hurston:

Zora Neale Hurston, the WPA in Florida, and the Cross City Turpentine Camp (Educational Unit)

Zora Neale Hurston Podcast