Zzzzzz…

Yet another odd holiday to add to the books… Today is Public Sleeping Day! We caught folks catching some z’s in our photo collection. Get some shut eye for yourself after you check out these historic snoozers.

Boys sleeping on idle nets. Riviera Beach, 1939

Boys asleep on idle nets, Riviera Beach, 1939

 

Allen's Service Station, Pensacola, 1940s

Allen’s Service Station, Pensacola, 1940s

 

Young man sleeping next to a manatee, ca. 1950

Young man sleeping next to a manatee, ca. 1950

 

Man asleep on a city bench, Tallahassee, 1957

Man asleep on a city bench, Tallahassee, 1957

 

Napping during a fishing trip offshore Stuart, 1958

Napping during a fishing trip offshore Stuart, 1958

 

Jill James asleep during a political rally, Tallahassee, 1960

Jill James asleep during a political rally, Tallahassee, 1960

 

Representative Gene Hodges napping during a recess, Tallahassee, 1987

Representative Gene Hodges napping during a legislative recess, Tallahassee, 1987

Tallahassee CORE Flier (July 1963)

In commemoration of Black History Month, this series highlights African-American history in Florida.

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) formed in 1942 with the purpose of challenging segregation laws in the United States through non-violent protest and civil disobedience.

CORE played a central role in several of the largest peaceful integration campaigns during the Civil Rights Movement, including Freedom Rides from the 1940s to the 1960s, the March on Washington in August 1963, the Mississippi Freedom Summer of 1964, and numerous sit-in demonstrations throughout the United States in the 1960s.

CORE leadership in Tallahassee created this flier in July 1963 (click thumbnails below for larger images). It summarizes the accomplishments of the movement in Tallahassee and the ongoing efforts by activists to defeat segregation in Florida’s capital city.

Tallahassee CORE pamphlet page 1

Reproduced in the flier is a telegram written by local CORE chairperson Patricia Stephens Due to President John F. Kennedy. Due asked the president to stop federal grants from funding St. Augustine’s 400th anniversary celebration.

Due wrote that government support for these events would amount to a “celebration of 400 years of slavery and segregation.” Other prominent civil rights leaders, including Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., raised similar concerns that the celebrations planned for St. Augustine in 1964 would marginalize the African-American role in Florida’s colonial history.

Tallahassee CORE pamphlet page 2

Two months before this flier appeared, over 200 student demonstrators, mostly from Florida A&M University, were arrested for picketing in front of segregated theaters in downtown Tallahassee. The flier also notes the latest campaign against pool segregation, and that Priscilla Stephens, sister of Patricia Stephens Due, had been arrested for attempting to integrate a city pool.

The Stephens sisters organized the first Tallahassee chapter of CORE in 1959. Throughout the early 1960s they played a prominent role as organizers, participants, and spokespeople for the movement.

Tallahassee CORE pamphlet page 3

Tallahassee CORE pamphlet page 4

To learn more see, Tananarive Due and Patricia Stephens Due, Freedom in the Family: A Mother-Daughter Memoir of the Fight for Civil Rights (New York: Ballatine, 2003) and Glenda Alice Rabby, The Pain and the Promise: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Tallahassee, Florida (Athens: University of Georgia, 1999).

FAMU Hospital

In commemoration of Black History Month, this series highlights African-American history in Florida.

Emancipation, and the period of Reconstruction that followed, brought civil rights to freed slaves throughout the former Confederacy for the first time. Black communities organized and built churches, schools, hospitals, businesses, and civic organizations. These institutions developed separately from their white counterparts during the era of legal segregation known as Jim Crow.

The legal gains of the 1860s and 1870s proved short-lived, and full equality remained only a dream until the triumphs of the modern Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s.

Dr. R.L. Anderson and nurse Lillie Mae Chavis with a patient, 1953

Dr. R.L. Anderson and nurse Lillie Mae Chavis with a patient

The Florida A&M University Hospital symbolized efforts by the black community to provide for its own health and wellness during segregation. Officially dedicated as a hospital on February 7, 1951, the institution first opened as a sanitarium in 1911. Before integration led to its closure in 1971, FAMU Hospital served as the only facility of its kind for African-Americans within 150 miles of Tallahassee.

Nurse Grace Kyler working with polio patients, 1953

Nurse Grace Kyler working with polio patients

Teacher Christine Jenkins with patients, 1953

Teacher Christine Jenkins with patients

The photographs featured in this blog post show scenes from FAMU Hospital in September 1953. These images are part of the Tallahassee Democrat Photographic Collection, which is currently in the process of digitization.

Want to learn more? This Friday, February 28, 2014, Florida A&M University and the Florida Division of Historical Resources will unveil a historic marker commemorating FAMU Hospital. The ceremony begins at 10 AM at the intersection of Palmer Avenue and Adams Street on the campus of Florida A&M University.

Nurse Idelle Anderson using an autoclave, 1953

Idelle Anderson operating an autoclave

Nurse station, 1953

Nurse’s station

Lincoln School, Tallahassee

In commemoration of Black History Month, this series of blog posts highlights African-American history in Florida.

Emancipation, and the period of Reconstruction that followed, brought civil rights to freed slaves throughout the former Confederacy for the first time. Black communities organized and built churches, schools, hospitals, businesses, and civic organizations. These institutions developed separately from their white counterparts during the era of legal segregation known as Jim Crow.

The legal gains of the 1860s and 1870s proved short-lived, and full equality remained only a dream until the triumphs of the modern Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s.

Lincoln School, ca. 1929

Lincoln School, ca. 1929

Miss Lincoln High School, Ivella Landers (center), and her attendants, Gloria Arnold (left) and Delores Austin, 1957

Miss Lincoln High School Ivella Landers (center) and her attendants, Gloria Arnold (left) and Delores Austin, 1957

One of the schools founded by African-Americans in Tallahassee during Reconstruction was known as Lincoln Academy (later Lincoln High School). Opened in 1869, Lincoln initially served children in grades 1 through 12. Several prominent local citizens attended or taught at Lincoln, including educator and community leader John G. Riley.

Lincoln High co-captains Willie Powell (left) and Robert Lindsey, 1960

Football team co-captains Willie Powell (left) and Robert Lindsey, 1960

Originally located at the intersection of Lafayette and Copeland Streets, the school moved to near Macomb and Brevard Streets in the 1920s. Lincoln closed in 1969 when Leon County implemented district-wide integration. A portion of Old Lincoln High School now serves as a Community Center in the historic Frenchtown neighborhood.

Unidentified prom-goers at Lincoln High School, 1959

Jacqueline Owens (left), ? Brown, Hattie Brown, and Jessie Drew at prom, 1959

The photographs featured in this blog post show scenes from Lincoln High School in the 1950s and 1960s. These images are part of the Tallahassee Democrat Photographic Collection, which is currently in the process of digitization.

Dorothy and Dock Wilson in driver training class, 1957

Dorothy and Dock Wilson in driver training class, 1957

Lincoln High School homecoming parade, 1957

Homecoming parade, 1957

Battle of Olustee (February 20, 1864)

In commemoration of Black History Month, this series of blog posts highlights African-American history in Florida.

Today marks the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Olustee, also known as the Battle of Ocean Pond.

In February 1864, the Union launched what would be the war’s largest military campaign in Florida. Designed to interrupt the supply of cattle and goods from the state that were destined for Confederate armies outside of Florida, add more escaped and freed slaves to the ranks of the U.S. Army, and possibly bring Florida back into the Union as a reconstructed free state, the northeast Florida campaign of 1864 consisted of some 7,000 Union troops, including three black regiments: the 1st North Carolina Colored Infantry, the 8th U.S. Colored Infantry (USCT), and the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.

The 54th had already distinguished itself on the ramparts of South Carolina’s Fort Wagner during the unit’s now famous assault on that Confederate bastion in July 1863. Unlike the 54th, however, the two other regiments had never been in combat, and the 8th USCT had not even completed its training when it arrived in Florida along with the rest of the Union troops on February 7, 1864.

Soldiers of the 54th Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers

Soldiers of the 54th Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers

Leaving about 1,500 men to secure Jacksonville and conduct other missions, the main Union force of 5,500 troops under the command of Brigadier General Truman Seymour began marching on February 20 west towards Lake City and the Suwannee River beyond. East of Lake City the Federals ran into advanced elements of a Confederate force of 5,000 men that established defensive positions outside of Lake City at Olustee, a station along the Florida, Atlantic & Gulf Railroad. The battle, which lasted through the afternoon of February 20, was a particularly bloody encounter that ended in a Confederate victory and a humiliating Union retreat back to Jacksonville.

The more experienced 54th Massachusetts as well as the 1st North Carolina played an important role in the battle by holding back the Confederate advance as the rest of Seymour’s regiments withdrew. One of those regiments, the 8th USCT, experienced some of the day’s heaviest fighting. Its untested ranks were ordered forward and ran into a storm of Confederate fire.

At the end of the battle, the 8th USCT lost more men than any other Union unit: 49 killed, 188 wounded, and 73 missing. Of these missing, several became prisoners and were eventually transferred to the infamous Confederate prisoner of war camp at Andersonville, Georgia. Others may have faced an even worse fate. Several postwar accounts, mostly from Confederate sources, recalled that individual Confederate soldiers killed some of the wounded and captured black soldiers.

Kurz and Allison lithographic print of the Battle at Olustee

Kurz and Allison lithographic print of the Battle at Olustee

After Olustee, black troops continued to play an important role in Union operations in Florida. In September 1864, they made up part of the force that attacked Marianna, Florida, and on March 6, 1865, black soldiers formed the mass of the Union troops that engaged the Confederates south of Tallahassee at Natural Bridge. The Union lost the battle and was denied the opportunity to capture Tallahassee during the war. A little over two months later, however, black troops marched into Florida’s capital as part of the Union occupying force that received the formal surrender of Confederate Florida on May 20, 1865.

Today, while the operations of black troops are better known in theaters of the war such as South Carolina (the assault on Fort Wagner on July 18, 1863) and Virginia (the Battle of the Crater on July 30, 1864), the actions of black troops in Florida, although less famous, were just as crucial to establishing the importance of black units in the Union war effort. Although the direct path to Union victory and black freedom pointed to Atlanta and Richmond, the route included many detours, like Florida, which ultimately led to emancipation.

Love Your Pet Day

Pet lovers unite – it’s Love Your Pet Day!

Grab your dog, cat, tortoise, rabbit, or whatever creature you love and give them a big hug and a treat (you should probably leave your fish in the water though)…

George Barton Hall and his puppy in Hall City, 1915

George Barton Hall and his puppy in Hall City, 1915

 

Al Zaebst with "Fanny" at Weeki Wachee, 1948

Al Zaebst with “Fanny” at Weeki Wachee, 1948

 

Boy fishing with his dog, Palm Beach County, ca. 1950

Boy fishing with his dog, Palm Beach County, ca. 1950

 

April and Michael McQuaig with their pet raccoon at El Maximo Ranch in Frostproof, 1984

April and Michael McQuaig with their pet raccoon at El Maximo Ranch in Frostproof, 1984

 

Captain Spence Slate feeding "George" in Key Largo, 1982

Captain Spence Slate feeding “George” in Key Largo, 1982

 

Governor Lawton Chiles and "Tess" in Tallahassee, 1998

Governor Lawton Chiles and “Tess” in Tallahassee, 1998

 

Leslie Dughi and "Duchess" watch the rain, Tallahassee, 1972

Leslie Dughi and “Duchess” watch the rain, Tallahassee, 1972

 

Eloise Morris with her pet dog and fawn, Monticello, ca. 1913

Eloise Morris with her pets, Monticello, ca. 1913

 

Kit and Mrs. Banks holding their dogs, De Leon Springs, 1919

Kit and Mrs. Banks holding their dogs, De Leon Springs, 1919

Thank You to Our Friends at the Riley House!

The African-American photo identification event, held yesterday at the State Archives, was a great success. Several folks from the community helped us identify images of African-American life in Tallahassee from the 1950s and 1960s. Special thanks to Althemese Barnes and the John G. Riley House and Museum for helping to organize this important event!

Over one hundred images were identified. For example, we learned that future NFL star and Chicago Bears legend Willie “The Wisp” Galimore (far right) appears in this photo along with three still unidentified Florida A&M football players.

Willie "The Wisp" Galimore and three unidentified Florida A&M football players, Tallahassee, 1953

Willie “The Wisp” Galimore and three unidentified Florida A&M football players, Tallahassee, 1953

… And this photograph of Griffin Junior High School beauty queens, including Althemese Barnes (passenger seat), Founding Executive Director at the John G. Riley House & Museum.

Griffin Junior High School beauty queens: Pauline Houzell, Yvonne Cofield, and Ida Holloman (back row), Edwina Martin (driver), and Althemese Barnes (passenger seat), Tallahassee, 1957

Griffin Junior High School beauty queens: Pauline Houzell, Yvonne Cofield, and Ida Holloman (back row), Edwina Martin (driver), and Althemese Barnes (passenger seat), Tallahassee, 1957

Historic Photograph Identification Day (February 18, 2014)

On Tuesday, February 18, the State Archives of Florida, in partnership with the John G. Riley House and Museum, will hold a historic photograph identification day in room 307 of the R.A. Gray Building (500 South Bronough Street, Tallahassee, 32399). This event is free and open to the public, and will run from 9 AM to 4 PM.

Unidentified cigarette girls, Tallahassee, 1956

Unidentified cigarette girls, Tallahassee, 1956

Unidentified civil rights demonstrators, Tallahassee, 1962

Unidentified civil rights demonstrators, Tallahassee, 1962

Visitors will be able to review a slideshow of images selected from the recently digitized Tallahassee Democrat photographic collection, focusing on unidentified scenes of African-American life in Tallahassee in the 1950s and 1960s. Unidentified images from other photographic collections will also be included in the slideshow program.

Unidentified gardener, Tallahassee, 1940s

Unidentified gardener, Tallahassee, 1940s

Unidentified 3-year-old on his birthday, Tallahassee, 1959

Unidentified 3-year-old on his birthday, Tallahassee, 1959

The images selected depict a variety of scenes in Tallahassee and the surrounding area, from civil rights demonstrations to school dances, businesses, civic and religious organizations, and Florida A&M University students and functions. Archives staff will be on hand to record identification information from attendees on the people, places, and events shown in the photographs.

Unidentified couple on their wedding day, Tallahassee, 1954

Unidentified couple on their wedding day, Tallahassee, 1954

Unidentified Boy Scouts at Camp Semialachee, Leon County, 1957

Unidentified Boy Scouts at Camp Semialachee, Leon County, 1957

The Beatles are Coming!

Fifty years ago this week the Beatles arrived in Florida for the first time in order to begin rehearsing for their second appearance on the Ed Sullivan show.

The Beatles in Key West, 1964

The Beatles in Key West, 1964

Their performance was broadcast live from the Deauville Hotel’s Napoleon Ballroom in Miami Beach on February 16. About 3500 people saw it live, and approximately 70 million watched on television. The Beatles were the opening act, and dancer and singer Mitzi Gaynor was the headliner. Beatle mania was in full swing.

Postcard view of the Deauville Hotel in Miami Beach

Postcard view of the Deauville Hotel in Miami Beach

After the show the Beatles enjoyed some much needed rest and relaxation in the balmy climes of South Florida. On February 18, they flew from Miami to London. As a band, the Beatles only visited the Sunshine State one more time, in the fall of 1964.