Group f/64 and the West Coast Photographic Movement

Although the photographs on Florida Memory are often discussed for their historic value, all exhibit some level of artistic direction and formal design elements.

A group of San Francisco-based photographers known as Group f/64 were renowned for their extreme focus and depth of field. Beginning in the late 1920s, Group f/64 formed as a sub-group of the West Coast Photographic Movement, a straight photography movement that worked against the prevailing pictorialist movement which attempted to mimic gestures of Romantic and Impressionist painting. The group included Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, John Paul Edwards, Sonya Noskowiak, Henry Swift, Willard Van Dyke, and Edward Weston.

Marjorie De Hartog, Close-up view of water hyacinth in the Everglades, c.1950s. Compare with photographs of the desert flora by Imogen Cunningham.

Group f/64’s name was derived from the extremely small aperture used in their large-format photography in photographing landscapes and close-up objects. The result is a severe, almost unnatural depth and crispness unattainable by the human eye or previous photography.

Scenic view of Lake Eola Park

Scenic view of Lake Eola Park – Orlando, Florida, n.d. Compare with Ansel Adams’ sober, high-contrast landscapes.

Their impact on photography became widespread by the 1930s and can be seen in many of the photographs in the Florida Photographic Collection. While the landscapes and objects have changed, the principles remain unchanged.

W.F. Jacobs, Detail of bark of black birch O'Leno State Park, Columbia County, Florida. 1940.

W.F. Jacobs, Detail of bark of black birch O’Leno State Park, Columbia County, Florida. 1940. Compare with the almost unrecognizable, uncomfortably close-up Edward Weston photographs.

While the images shown here were not necessarily inspired directly by this group, they are suggestive of the f/64 aesthetic. These formalist, aesthetic, and stylistic approaches foster new and different ways to engage with the images.

Close-up view of Jupiter Inlet Light Station - Palm Beach County, Florida

Close-up view of Jupiter Inlet Light Station – Palm Beach County, Florida Compare with the crisp architectural photographs of Willard van Dyck or John Paul Edwards.

 

Detail of whole-shell tabby concrete at the Kingsley Plantation State Historical Site - Fort George Island, Florida, 1981.

Detail of whole-shell tabby concrete at the Kingsley Plantation State Historical Site – Fort George Island, Florida, 1981. Compare with the disorienting and sometimes misleading details of Sonya Noskowiak.

Visit the Florida Photographic Collection and search for photos from your area.

Seine Fishing in Florida

Commercial fishing has long been a prominent maritime industry in Florida. The “beach seining” method for commercial fishing has declined in recent years owing to evolving net regulations, but for generations it was an honored tradition in fishing communities across the state. To catch fish using this method, a team of fishermen would let out a special seine net in a semicircle around a small section of coastline. Seine nets were fitted with weights and floats to create a wall of netting that reached from the surface of the water to the bottom, so as to capture as many fish as possible as the net was dragged along. Once in place, vehicles or in some cases teams of people would pull on the nets to bring them back toward shore, along with any fish caught inside. Depending on the size of the net and the number of times the fishermen set and dragged it, a day’s catch could yield hundreds of pounds of fish.

 

Seine netting drying on a rack to prevent damage (circa 1875).

Seine netting drying on a rack to prevent damage (circa 1875).

The fishing boat depicted here is releasing a seine net into shallow water near Shell Point in Wakulla County, Florida in preparation for a catch.  Notice the semicircular shape that allowed the fishermen to drag the nets in using human or mechanical power (1949).

The fishing boat depicted here is releasing a seine net into shallow water near Shell Point in Wakulla County, Florida in preparation for a catch. Notice the semicircular shape that allowed the fishermen to drag the nets in using human or mechanical power (1949).

In this photograph taken by renowned commercial photographer Joseph Janney Steinmetz, local fishermen in Naples haul in a seine net containing several species of fish (circa 1940).

Local fishermen in Naples haul in a seine net containing several species of fish (circa 1940).

Fishermen hauling in seine nets with a catch (circa 1960s).

Fishermen hauling in seine nets with a catch (circa 1960s).

Seine fishing at St. Teresa, Florida (circa 1900).

Seine fishing at St. Teresa, Florida (circa 1900).

Fishermen at Shell Point in Wakulla County, Florida prepare to haul in a seine net (1965).

Fishermen at Shell Point in Wakulla County, Florida prepare to haul in a seine net (1965).

More photos depicting seine fishing in Florida may be found in the Florida Photographic Collection. Teachers, you may also be interested in Florida Memory’s learning unit entitled Netmaking and Net Fishing in Florida. It includes photographs, audio, and transcripts taken from folklorist Peggy Bulger’s interview with net maker Billy Burbanks, III in 1980.

The Museum of Florida History is holding an exhibit through August 26, 2014 entitled “The Lure of Florida Fishing,” which explores the history of sport fishing in Florida from the 19th century to the present. For more information on this exhibit, check out the museum’s exhibit page.

Release the Birds for One Thousand Twitter Followers!

Thanks for helping us reach 1,000 followers on Twitter! In honor of the Twitter bird, we’re releasing our own birds.

Black skimmers in flight at Cedar Key, Florida.

Black skimmers in flight at Cedar Key, Florida (2007)

 

Flamingo at the Flamingo Gardens aviary in Davie, Florida

Flamingo at the Flamingo Gardens aviary in Davie, Florida

 

 

Avocets at Cedar Key, Florida.

Avocets at Cedar Key, Florida

 

Marbled Godwits in flight at Cedar Key, Florida.

Marbled Godwits in flight at Cedar Key, Florida (2010)

 

Oystercatchers in Cedar Key, Florida.

Oystercatchers in Cedar Key, Florida

 

Pelicans await hand out from Capt. John Battilo and his mate Jeff.

Pelicans await hand out from Capt. John Battilo and his mate Jeff (1987)

 

Blue Crabbing… in the Ocala National Forest?

Nestled in between lakes Kerr and George in Marion County near Ocala is a somewhat unusual attraction called Salt Springs. The name says it all: in this picturesque pool of roughly 190 by 130 feet, four vents in the limestone floor emit spring crystal clear water with a slight salinity owing to the presence of sodium, magnesium, and potassium salts in the underground passages below.

View of salt Springs in Marion County, Florida (1941)

View of salt Springs in Marion County, Florida (1941)

The saltiness of the water has not deterred many visitors, as Salt Springs has long been one of the foremost attractions of the Ocala National Forest. The water discharged from the springs travels about four miles down a broad run into the northwest corner of Lake George, providing excellent opportunities for boating and fishing, which locals and visitors alike have long enjoyed.

Boys in a small boat near the vents at Salt Springs (1941).

Boys in a small boat near the vents at Salt Springs (1941).

Youth canoeing near Salt Springs (circa 1970).

Youth canoeing near Salt Springs (circa 1970).

Unlike most Florida springs, however, Salt Springs is home to another fun activity – crabbing. The salinity of the water allows blue crab to live in this aquatic habitat, despite it being over an hour’s drive from either coast. As a consequence, many people have enjoyed visiting the springs as much for gathering this favorite Florida delicacy as for the swimming. Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, famed Florida author and winner of the Pulitzer Prize for The Yearling, was a frequent visitor to the springs to collect the main ingredient for Crab a la Newburg, one of her favorite recipes.

Women sitting above a crab storage bin at Salt springs (circa 1960s).

Women sitting above a crab storage bin at Salt springs (circa 1960s).

 

A couple showing off their blue crab catch at Salt Springs (circa 1960s).

A couple showing off their blue crab catch at Salt Springs (circa 1960s).

The connection between Rawlings and Salt Springs goes even farther, as several buildings near Salt Springs were used by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios during the filming of The Yearling.

Barn near Salt Springs used in the production of the film adaptation of Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings' The Yearling (circa 1940).

Barn near Salt Springs used in the production of the film adaptation of Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings’ The Yearling (circa 1940).

House and gasoline pump on property near Salt Springs used in the production of the film adaptation of Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings' The Yearling (1940).

House and gasoline pump on property near Salt Springs used in the production of the film adaptation of Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings’ The Yearling (1940).

 

Florida Memory has a wealth of resources relating to Florida’s renowned natural springs.  Type the name of your favorite Florida spring into the search box above to learn more.   We also have a number of photographs depicting the life and work of author Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings.

 

National Library Week (April 13-19, 2014)

Celebrate National Library Week by checking out a book at one of your local Florida libraries!  But first, get a look at some of these library photos from Florida Memory.

Randall Sineath with Webster's dictionary at Leonard Wesson School in Tallahassee.

Randall Sineath with Webster’s dictionary at Leonard Wesson School in Tallahassee (1961).

 

Miami Public Library

Miami Public Library (1950s).

 

Young woman binding book at Florida A & M College

Young woman binding book at Florida A & M College.

 

Gainesville Public Library in Alachua County, Florida.

Gainesville Public Library in Alachua County, Florida.

 

Florida State University School of Library and Information Science library

Florida State University School of Library and Information Science library (1986).

 

Public library : Jacksonville, Florida

Public library : Jacksonville, Florida

 

Public Library - De Land, Florida

Public Library – De Land, Florida (1950s).

 

Leon County Public Library - Tallahassee, Florida

Leon County Public Library – Tallahassee, Florida (1957).

 

First library building in Fort Myers.

First library building in Fort Myers (1955).

 

Minerva Monroe Library : New Smyrna Beach, Florida

Minerva Monroe Library : New Smyrna Beach, Florida (1940s).

Public library - Kissimmee, Florida

Public library – Kissimmee, Florida (1920s).

 

 

 

View of Florida's State Library's storage area - Tallahassee, Florida.

View of Florida’s State Library’s storage area – Tallahassee, Florida (1947).

Public library - Saint Petersburg, Florida

Public library – Saint Petersburg, Florida

 

Library - Lake Worth, Florida

Library – Lake Worth, Florida

 

Mikasuki boys reading at the Mission

Mikasuki boys reading at the Mission (1941).

 

 

The Trials and Tribulations of the Early Automobile in Florida

The automobile is a beautiful toy,
And a useful one, too, as everyone knows;
But you really can’t count it an unalloyed joy
For it’s only a pleasure, as far as it goes.

Florida Highways, December 1923

These travelers struggle to free their car from the mud along a wooded stretch of early Florida roadway (circa 1924).

These travelers struggle to free their car from the mud along a wooded stretch of early Florida roadway (circa 1924).

While automobile use was on the rise in the 1910s and 1920s, state and local governments across the United States struggled to build the roads necessary for safe and speedy motoring.  Florida, with its unique and varied geography, posed some particularly daunting challenges for motorists and road builders alike.  The Florida State Legislature created the State Road Department in 1915, along with a fund to aid highway construction.  Fifteen percent of the money collected for automobile registrations was set aside to help support the new projects, along with a new property tax.

Despite the efforts of both state and federal governments to provide a system of good roads, however, curious visitors to Florida frequently ran into trouble getting from place to place.  Their enthusiasm for exploring the Sunshine State knew no bounds, but it would be a few years before the state’s road system could catch up.  The following photos depict some of the trouble Florida’s early motorists encountered.

The Tamiami Trail, which now carries U.S. Highway 41 across the Florida Everglades, was once a muddy quagmire for much of its route.  The highway was completed in stages, and these men were the first to travel across the unfinished portion between Fort Myers and Everglades City.  The group included one commissary truck, seven Model T Fords, and a new Elcar.  Only the Model T Fords managed to complete the trip (1923).

The Tamiami Trail, which now carries U.S. Highway 41 across the Florida Everglades, was once a muddy quagmire for much of its route. The highway was completed in stages, and these men were the first to travel across the unfinished portion between Fort Myers and Everglades City. The group included one commissary truck, seven Model T Fords, and a new Elcar. Only the Model T Fords managed to complete the trip (1923).

Another photo of the first group to cross the unfinished portion of the Tamiami Trail between Fort Myers and Everglades City in 1923.

Another photo of the first group to cross the unfinished portion of the Tamiami Trail between Fort Myers and Everglades City in 1923.

Harriet Bedell, an Episcopal deaconess, set up a mission in Collier City, Florida to minister to the Seminole Indians.  Getting around in this region was hardly a cakewalk, as this photo suggests (circa 1930s-1940s).

Harriet Bedell, an Episcopal deaconess, set up a mission in Collier City, Florida to minister to the Seminole Indians. Getting around in this region was hardly a cakewalk, as this photo suggests (circa 1930s-1940s).

Mikasuki Indians help Deaconess Bedell free her car from the mud in South Florida (circa 1930s-1940s).

Mikasuki Indians help Deaconess Bedell free her car from the mud in South Florida (circa 1930s-1940s).

Interested in the history of the roads in your county?  The former State Road Department’s publication Florida Highways is an excellent place to start your research.  Visit the State Library of Florida to get a look.

You might also be interested in our collection of photographs from the Florida Department of Transportation.

Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings

Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings was the first Floridian to receive the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel (later named the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction).  She won the award in 1939 for her book The Yearling.

Photograph of Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings with typewriter

Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (1896-1953)

In 1928, Rawlings purchased an orange grove in Alachua County near Hawthorne, FL. Located between Lochloosa Lake and Orange Lake, the site was called Cross Creek. The surrounding area served as a setting, provided the characters, and influenced the stories of most of her novels and short stories. Themes of rural Florida, the Big Scrub area, and Florida Cracker culture are prevalent in her works.

Photograph of oaks with moss over water from Cross Creek, FL

Cross Creek, FL

The plots of her novels revolved around her observations in this area: farming, hunting, the interaction with the environment and its inhabitants, moonshining, and poverty. Rawling’s depictions were so direct from her experience, people she met were named in her novels and descriptions were recognized by the locals resulting in threats and at least one law suit for invasion of privacy.

MGM set for the film adaptation of The Yearling, 1940 with Gregory Peck & Jane Wyman

MGM set for the film adaptation of The Yearling, 1940 with Gregory Peck & Jane Wyman

Her works garnered several awards including an O. Henry Award in 1932 (for “Gal Young Un”)  and the Newberry Honor in 1956 (for The Secret River). Several of her works have been adapted for stage and screen. The story rights to The Yearling were purchased by MGM and an Academy Award winning film adaptation was released in 1946, increasing her fame.

Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings home - Cross Creek, Florida

Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings home in Cross Creek, FL

Rawlings’ Cross Creek home, where she once hosted Zora Neale Hurston, is now preserved as the Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings Historic State Park and has been designated a National Historic Landmark.

Then and Now: The Breakers

Open for more than 100 years, The Breakers is one of the landmarks of Palm Beach. Henry Flagler built The Palm Beach Inn in 1896. When Flagler expanded the hotel, he renamed it “The Breakers.”

Now” photos courtesy of VISIT FLORIDA

Entrance to The Breakers hotel

Entrance to The Breakers hotel (1920s)

 

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

 

Breakers Hotel and golf links

The Breakers hotel and golf links (1920s)

 

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

 

Fountain in the courtyard at the Breakers hotel - Palm Beach, Florida

Fountain in the courtyard at the Breakers hotel – Palm Beach, Florida (1920s)

 

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

 

Swimming pool at the Breakers hotel - Palm Beach, Florida

Swimming pool at the Breakers hotel – Palm Beach, Florida (1920s)

 

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

 

North loggia at the Breakers hotel - Palm Beach, Florida

North loggia at the Breakers hotel – Palm Beach, Florida (1920s)

 

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

 

Main dining room of the Breakers hotel - Palm Beach, Florida (1920s)

Main dining room of the Breakers hotel – Palm Beach, Florida (1920s)

 

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

The Breakers (Pete Cross for VISIT FLORIDA), 2013

 

National Agriculture Day

Florida’s second largest industry is agriculture and the Sunshine State ranks second in the United States for production of fresh vegetables. So head to your local farmers’ market—we’re celebrating National Agriculture Day.

Picking fruit in John C. English seedling grove - Alva, Florida

Picking fruit in John C. English seedling grove – Alva, Florida

 

African American farmer standing in corn field - Alachua County, Florida

African-American farmer standing in corn field – Alachua County, Florida (1913)

 

Greetings from Florida

Greetings from Florida

 

Pineapples growing near Tampa (191-)

Pineapples growing near Tampa (191-)

 

Seminole Indian cowboys herding cattle in the pasture - Brighton Reservation, Florida.

Seminole Indian cowboys herding cattle in the pasture – Brighton Reservation, Florida (1950)

 

Stanley Thrift checks the new potato harvesting machine - Hastings, Florida (1947)

Stanley Thrift checks the new potato harvesting machine – Hastings, Florida (1947)

 

Aged man picking strawberries - Plant City, Florida (1960)

Aged man picking strawberries – Plant City, Florida (1960)

 

Yamato farmers at railroad siding - Yamato, Florida

Yamato farmers at railroad siding – Yamato, Florida (1911)

 

Peach picking crew - Plant City, Florida (192-)

Peach picking crew – Plant City, Florida (192-)

 

Turkeys at the Tot's Tender Turkey Farm - Havana, Florida (1952)

Turkeys at the Tot’s Tender Turkey Farm – Havana, Florida (1982)

 

Walter Welkener milks his purebred registered Jersey cattle at the Holly Hill Dairy Farm - Duval County, Florida

Walter Welkener milks his purebred registered Jersey cattle at the Holly Hill Dairy Farm – Duval County, Florida (1960)

 

 

Hooked

With thousands of lakes, rivers, springs, and swamps, Florida has a wealth of fishing opportunities. The famous tarpon and marlin swim the southwestern coast and the Keys. Bizarre and unique species include the giant manta rays and sawfish. Florida has attracted the curious and ambitious to test its waters for centuries.

 

[Fishermen with goliath grouper at Jupiter Inlet

Fishermen with goliath grouper at Jupiter Inlet (1910s)

 

Men standing around Sawfish and Bonito shark: Key West, Florida

Men standing around Sawfish and Bonito shark: Key West, Florida (1911)

 

Portrait of author Ernest Hemingway posing with sailfish: Key West, Florida (1940s)

Portrait of author Ernest Hemingway posing with sailfish: Key West, Florida (1940s)

 

Mr. John Hachmeister and Mrs. Earl Baum admiring a 1,200 lb manta ray caught by Forrest Walker (1938)

Mr. John Hachmeister and Mrs. Earl Baum admiring a 1,200 lb manta ray caught by Forrest Walker (1938)

 

The state’s fertile waters have provided a wealth of food species, from small-scale family operations to large-scale industrial enterprises. While the years of harvesting have taken significant tolls on sensitive fisheries and ecosystems, Florida’s marine environments remain principle economic and cultural hallmarks of the state.

 

Grouper caught in the Halifax River displayed at Gene Johnson's Tackle Shop: Daytona Beach, Florida picture (1920s)

Grouper caught in the Halifax River displayed at Gene Johnson’s Tackle Shop: Daytona Beach, Florida picture (1920s)

 

Whale shark recovered from shallow water (1912) The fish weighed 30,000 pounds and was 45 feet long.

Whale shark recovered from shallow water (1912) The fish weighed 30,000 pounds and was 45 feet long.

 

Fishermen and their catch of a 350 lb. mullet shark: Saint Petersburg, Florida (1918)

Fishermen and their catch of a 350 lb. shark: Saint Petersburg, Florida (1918)

 

See “The Lure of Florida Fishing,” an exhibit now on display at the Museum of Florida History, 500 S. Bronough Street, Tallahassee, FL 32301